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Local Treatment of Prostate Cancer

Background

Prostate cancer is cancer that grows in the prostate, a part of the reproductive system (male). This also includes the *****, seminal vesicles, and testicles. In general, prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. It is also demonstrated as the second leading cause of cancer deaths. When detected early, it has the best chance for successful treatment. With its existing treatment options, patients with prostate cancer can even live a quality life for years. However, the treatment usually depends upon factors like- stage of cancer, growth of the tumor, patient’s age, the immune response and tolerance, and most importantly the preference of the doctor and the patient. 

Local Treatment Options

Local treatment options for prostate cancer help in getting rid of cancer from a limited area. These techniques work well in the case of patients suffering from early-stage cancer. However, if the cancer cells have started to grow and spread outside the prostate, systemic treatment of prostate cancer should be considered. In simpler words, local therapies are those methods that help in removing the tumor or killing the cancer cells from a specific region. The following are the local treatment options for patients with prostate cancer. 

Monitoring Tumor Growth

Tumor growth is monitored by the medical team to keep a check on the disease, its complications, and its severity. This is done by methods such as FDG-PET (FDG positron emission tomography), MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), BLI (Bioluminescence Imaging), and FLI (Fluorescence Imaging).

Surgery

Surgery, in the case of Prostate Cancer, is done to remove the prostate and the surrounding lymph nodes. A surgical oncologist performs this operation. The type of surgery depends upon the tumor growth, stage of cancer, patient’s age, and other health factors. The most common types of surgeries for treating Prostate Cancer are given below:

  • Radical (open) Prostatectomy
    The surgery that involves the removal of the entire prostate along with the seminal vesicles is known as Radical (open) Prostatectomy. Besides that, lymph nodes in the pelvic reg may also be removed. This is why surgery may affect the sexual function of the individual. To help resume normal sexual function, the doctor may prescribe certain ***** and penile implants. The most common adverse effect of Radical Surgery is urinary incontinence. 
  • Robotic or Laparoscopic Prostatectomy
    This surgery may shorten the recovery time. Through a small keyhole incision in the abdomen, the surgeon inserts a camera and instruments. Then, the surgeon directs the removal of the prostate gland to the robotic instruments. In comparison with other surgeries, Robotic Prostatectomy causes less pain and trouble. However, the urinary and sexual adverse effects are quite similar to that of the Radical Prostatectomy.
  • Bilateral Orchiectomy
    The surgery that involves the removal of both testicles is known as Bilateral Orchiectomy. It aims to stop androgen production. Bilateral Orchiectomy is most commonly done in patients with locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. This operation can further be performed under local anesthesia.
  • Transurethral Resection of the Prostate
    Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) is most specifically used to relieve the symptoms concerning urinary blockage rather than treating prostate cancer. The surgery includes the removal of prostate tissue from the prostate by inserting a narrow tube and cystoscope into the urethra. 

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